Technology and Writing 304 WI
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Analyzing Professional Rhetoric



 IMRAD Format



A. Introduction:

  • Move 1            What is the topic?
  • Move 2            Describe the current state of research as outlined in the article:
  • Move 3            What gap is this article intended to fill?
  • What question is this article addressing or attempting to answer?
  • Move 4            What is the purpose and/or structure of this research?

B. Methods Section:

  • Describe and summarize the kind of research being conducted for this article.
  • Are there any problems or unanswered questions about the methods? (i.e. are they effective for serving the purpose of the article?)

C. Reporting Results:  

  • What are the results of the research?
  • How are they presented? (i.e. numbers, charts, comparative analysis, anecdotal evidence, inter-textual comparison)
  • How effectively does the data serve the purpose of the article?
  • Are there areas of the topic that are not addressed?

D. Discussion Section:

       What is the magnitude and direction of the effects observed (compared with what others found or compared with what might be expected)

       What are the advantages and limitations of the methods used in the research (and how these features may have influenced the observed effects)

       What are the implications of the findings for current practice or theory

       What are the research questions that remain

       Could you infer any bias on the part of the writer that may have affected the research or conclusions?


  • Are the documents referenced for the article reliable?
  • Are there any references of questionable quality?
  • Has any of the information referenced by the author(s) been misrepresented or mis-quoted?